Magnesium in the rumenMagnesium in the rumen
Grass tetany can be costly to cattle producers. Prevention is best achieved by a combination of smart management practices and daily intake of a magnesium-fortified supplement.
February 15, 2017
As we finish up winter and enter into spring, many will start high magnesium supplementation to help prevent winter tetany and grass tetany. We’ve all heard over and over that cattle need extra magnesium to prevent tetany. But have you ever wondered why?
Why are Cattle so Susceptible?
Cattle are more susceptible to tetany than any other domesticated specie. Ruminants in general are less efficient in absorbing magnesium than non-ruminants. Of domesticated ruminants, cattle are 3 times worse at absorbing magnesium than sheep or goats. The reason that cattle are more likely to experience magnesium deficiency is that the primary site of absorption occurs in the rumen.
The body relies more on daily intake of magnesium than on body reserves. Circulating levels of magnesium in the system are strongly affected by daily feed intake. Fasting causes a rapid decline in serum magnesium levels. This is why transport and bad weather can be triggers for onset of tetany symptoms
The chemical environment of the rumen environment is crucial for magnesium uptake in cattle. Magnesium is absorbed by active transport across the cell wall against an electrochemical gradient. Think of it like trying to push a heavy box up an incline. Extra potassium in the rumen increases the potential difference (making that incline steeper), thus reducing magnesium absorption. In contrast, the presence of sodium in the rumen decreases the potential difference (making the incline less steep), making magnesium absorption easier. So, in essence, sodium enhances magnesium absorption while potassium blocks it.
Rumen pH is also important because the solubility of magnesium is highly dependent on pH. Magnesium must be dissolved in the rumen contents in order to be absorbed. Magnesium is most soluble at a slightly acidic pH. Excess nitrogen in the diet can negatively influence magnesium absorption by creation of excess ammonia which in turn raises rumen pH and allows less magnesium to dissolve in the rumen contents.
Colostrum contains up to 3 times the magnesium of “regular” milk, thus increasing magnesium needs drastically at calving. However, even though “regular” milk isn’t a rich source of magnesium, the concentration is not influenced by the dam’s diet. So lactation will continue to drain maternal reserves in situations of a magnesium-deficient diet or interference in absorption. On the flip side, enhanced magnesium intake doesn’t increase the amount of magnesium found in milk.
Onset of Tetany
The rate of onset is dependent on the degree of deficiency. Lactating cows can experience rapid decline while undernourished, non-lactating cattle (of both sexes) can experience a slower development of symptoms. Symptoms include: extreme excitability, muscle twitching, frequent urination, grinding of teeth, staggering, uncoordinated and stiff gait, and eventually collapse with convulsions with classic “paddling”. Death usually soon follows. Progression may be a matter of hours or may stretch out for several days.
Treatment and Prevention
Animals exhibiting symptoms require immediate treatment. Because calcium deficiency often accompanies magnesium deficiency, IV administration of both magnesium and calcium is a common treatment. Consult your veterinarian for more detailed treatment information.
Prevention is best achieved with a combination of daily intake of a palatable supplement containing sufficient magnesium and proper management. Management-wise, make sure that cattle don’t lose too much weight or become malnourished. Don’t allow them to run out of hay or supplement. Try to plan calving to avoid the most inclement weather if possible.
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