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No Butts About It: A Guide To InjectionsHow much damage can a syringe and needle do to a cut of meat? Plenty.Scars from injections can affect tenderness and often leave a lesion in the muscle. The scar or lesion must be cut out of the meat in the processing plant.The beef industry loses an average of $7.05 on every steer and heifer slaughtered because of injection sites, according to the National

No Butts About It: A Guide To Injections

How much damage can a syringe and needle do to a cut of meat? Plenty.

Scars from injections can affect tenderness and often leave a lesion in the muscle. The scar or lesion must be cut out of the meat in the processing plant.

The beef industry loses an average of $7.05 on every steer and heifer slaughtered because of injection sites, according to the National Cattlemen's Beef Association's (NCBA)1995 National Beef Quality Audit.

And, don't think the injection you give a two-month-old calf won't turn up at the packer. A 1993 Colorado State University (CSU) study showed large lesions were still present in the meat 380 days after an injection was given.

In addition to waste concerns, significant tenderness problems surround injection site lesions, according to a 1994 CSU study. Using the Warner-Bratzler shear force scale, researchers rated cooked steaks with and without lesions.

At the lesion, shear force value was 30.6 lbs., compared to 8.8 lbs. for a similar steak with no lesion. Just 3 in. away from the lesion, shear force value was 12.8 lbs., compared with 8.6 lbs. for a non-lesion steak. Acceptable shear force value is under 10 lbs.

So not only is the lesion cut out of the meat, but the area around the lesion is considered too tough for a good eating experience.

But proper injection procedures can help prevent that. "Animal treatment with vaccines and drugs can be done without carcass damage," says Nolan Hartwig, professor and chair of Iowa State's Department of Veterinary, Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine.

He offers the following advice for minimizing injection site lesions:

-- Work with a competent veterinarian. "That's the most important factor," Hartwig says. "A lot of producers get into trouble because they don't keep up to date."

-- Always give injections (vaccines and antibiotics) ahead of the shoulder blade, in the less valuable cuts of meat.

-- Use products whose labels call for subcutaneous (SubQ) use.

-- Use sharp needles. Replace the needle immediately if it is bent. For routine use, Hartwig says replacing the needle every 25-50 injections is enough. The common recommendation of replacing the needle every 10 injections isn't very practical, he says.

-- Use needles no larger than 16 gauge.

-- Use needles 1-1.25 in. long. Longer needles break and bend too easily.

-- Never give more than 10 ml of antibiotics in one site. Hartwig also warns against giving baby calves high doses.

-- Don't mix different vaccines (or antibiotics) together. "The complex chemistry involved in these things - you just don't want to mess with that," Hartwig says.

-- Avoid injecting wet cattle, if possible. Injecting through wet or muddy skin increases the risk of infection.

-- Clean syringes between handling days.

-- Never keep a reconstituted vaccine for more than a few hours. It will lose its effectiveness.

-- Keep syringes separate for use with different vaccines. The preservative in killed vaccines will kill the modified-live vaccine.

-- Properly restrain cattle to minimize safety risk to the handling crew and help assure good injection technique.

-- Allow only well-trained people to inject cattle. Make sure they're paying attention, too. Monitor performance and technique constantly.

-- Develop a vac cination program that fits your cattle and the diseases in your herd.

For more information on proper injection practices, contact your veterinarian.

One For The Record Books Protection. That's what keeping good records will give your operation, says University of Nebraska Extension veterinarian Dee Griffin.

He says if something happens and you don't have records, "you're in a world of hurt, trying to figure out what went wrong." You'll be helpless against FDA inspections or residue complaints.

In addition to providing protection, records help you operate more efficiently. "Records allow producers not to have to trust their memory," Griffin says. Records can help you evaluate how well various products are performing so you can stop using products that don't work. Griffin recommends recording treatments for individual animals.

"Keeping track of the individual animal treated is helpful for evaluating treatment effect, and that's helpful for making good economic decisions," he says. He recommends producers:

-- Develop a record keeping system, and keep it simple. "If records are not really simple, they'll not be kept," Griffin says. Don't write things down twice or keep records you don't need.

"You need to ask yourself periodically, 'Why am I keeping these records? Are they serving their purpose?' " Griffin says. "Just focus on things with pay-off."

-- Record all medications, vaccines, pesticides and feed additives. Include date administered, which animals received it and what the specific product was.

-- Keep samples from every load of feed and feed supplement that comes into your yard. Freeze samples that will deteriorate in open air. Label every sample with date and source.

-- Visually check incoming feed. Look at the color, check for strange grains or trash and unusual smells.

-- Write down "events," like droughts or other unusual occurrences. Griffin even recommends writing down a brief weather description every day. If, for example, very high temperatures cause problems with cattle, Griffin says the records can help reconstruct the situation.

-- Make sure everyone in your operation knows the importance of records. "If we don't recruit every person as a part of a team for beef quality assurance, somebody's going to forget something," Griffin says.

Federal law requires records for extra-label drug use. To make sure you are following these regulations, contact your veterinarian or Extension beef specialist.

Hide Defects: A Hole In Your Wallet Don't hide your profits behind brands, mud, insects and manure.

Each year, hide defects cost the beef industry almost $700 million, according to the 1995 NCBA National Beef Quality Audit. Specifically, brands - especially on the rib - must be cut out of the hide, leaving a hole that makes the hide less useful and decreases its value.

But brands are essential in many Western states to prevent theft and sort cattle. If you must brand, CSU animal scientist Tom Field says to put it on the hip to minimize hide damage. The closer to the tailhead, the better.

Field says that though some hide is lost with a hip brand, it's trimmed off the edge, so most of the hide is still good. He uses this analogy: "If you're going to have a dent on your car, would you rather have it on the rear bumper or on the driver's side door?"

Field adds that hip brands are easy to see. Also, branding on the hip isn't hard, especially with a calf table. "If you position your crew right, it's not going to be a problem," Field says.

External parasites also damage hides. "Grubs can literally leave holes in the hide," Field says. "Biting or sucking lice can leave pits." Field adds that cattle scratching against posts to relieve itching also damages hides.

Damaged hides bring less revenue. "Insect- or brand-damaged hides are limited to lower-value hide and leather markets and restrict the ability of tanners to generate maximum revenue," Field says.

But the tanner isn't the only one who will benefit from fewer hide defects. Texas A&M meat scientist Dan Hale says insect-infested cattle often have eye problems and reduced weight gain. "Most people should have an insect control program already," Hale says. "Anytime an animal is sick, that affects performance."

Glen Dolezal, professor of meat science at Oklahoma State University, suggests producers do the following:

-- Brand on the hip if allowable. If your state brand laws require rib brands, contact your state brand administration to find out how expensive it would be to legally change the location of your brand .

-- Treat cattle for lice, grubs, mites or other external parasites.

-- While it's not possible to eliminate all mud, every little bit helps. Keep pens scraped and provide bedding or a mound. In wet weather, provide an overhead shelter if possible.

-- Keep your yard free of objects that could damage hides. "Make sure you don't have any jagged edges," Dolezal says.

Tips For Responsible Culling Which cattle to keep or cull can be a difficult decision in the cowherd, but it's important to stay competitive. Quality cows produce quality calves.

To make good culling decisions, Cliff Lamb, University of Minnesota beef cow/calf management specialist, says records are the most important.

"The No. 1 thing is maintain records. It makes things easier down the road," Lamb says. "You really won't know how your calves perform without records."

Genetics should factor into culling decisions, too, Lamb says. "Start selecting for cattle that will produce the carcass quality you want," he says.

Usually, Lamb recommends culling open cows immediately, before they incur a loss. But, he adds that if cattle prices are down, it may be best to turn out open cows on grass and keep them for another year.

"If the market is really low, leave those cows in the herd as open and roll them over to the next year," he says. "But don't just hold every cow over. Keep the better cows."

When it comes to physical evaluation, a culling rule of thumb is cows must be fit and structurally healthy to be useful. "They have to be sound," Lamb says.

Evaluate feet, legs, udders, eyes and body size and condition. Look especially at conformation and pelvic area, he says.

Jim Gosey, University of Nebraska beef Extension specialist, says producers need to check regularly for functional problems, like lameness or eye trouble. "Those are just routine management practices that a producer should check frequently," Gosey says. "It's like checking the oil in your car."

Gosey adds it's important to watch for sickness in the herd and treat it right away, rather than wait until it's too late and be forced to cull the animal.

Stay away from bad temperaments, Gosey says. Animals with poor dispositions tend to produce dark-cutting beef that is unsuitable for steak. And, the cow can pass on her bad temper to her offspring. "They're costly to maintain. They're dangerous. And they have significant discounts at slaughter," Gosey says. "Elimination of poor temperament ... is a wise thing to do."

He also says reducing extremes in the cowherd is important. Extremes in weight, age and biological type increase production costs and reduce product uniformity.

Carcass Data Can Improve Your Herd Why bother getting data on how your cattle do on the rail? After all, the packer is the one taking a hit on defects like excess fat or poor quality grade.

True, but experts caution that the beef industry will soon start looking for who's causing the problems. In many cases, it's the cow-calf producer.

University of Minnesota Extension beef scientist Alfredo DiCostanzo says, "Sooner or later, the segments that took the hit will begin to look back to see where that problem came from."

And it's better to make changes now than to get burned later, says CSU's Tom Field. "Information now is way better than information later," Field says.

He says carcass data will be especially important as the industry moves to a value-based marketing system. "You sure want to know (how your cattle perform) so you can adjust your breeding program," he says.

Carcass data helps producers see how their management practices and breeding programs affect the end product, DiCostanzo says. Producers need information about blemishes, lesions and disease condition so they can make appropriate management changes, he says. Information on ribeye area, back fat, yield grade and quality grade are important for breeding decisions.

DiCostanzo says some producers don't make changes in their herd based on carcass data but use it to find a market for their cattle. For example, some producers have learned all their cattle grade Select, and then sought out buyers who want only that type of cattle.

Sarah Buxkemper, on the other hand, is a purebred Simbrah breeder in western Texas who has participated in the Texas Ranch to Rail Program for several years. The program tracks her cattle after they leave her ranch and compiles data on their rail performance.

Buxkemper says the program has been very helpful to her. She adds that individual information on calves has allowed her to weed out poor performing dams and sires. "I'm trying to eliminate ones that won't grade at least Select," she says.

In May 1998, Monfort Packing Co. started providing producers carcass information free of charge. Tim Schiefelbein, Monfort's value-based procurement manager, says the data helps producers know what they're producing. "We can't expect them to make any changes if we don't give them any feedback," Schiefelbein says.

Producers who don't improve their beef will be hurt, Schiefelbein says, when buyers realize their cattle don't perform well. For example, a feeder whose cattle graded poorly won't buy from the same cow/calf producer again, he says. In the same way, feeders who generally over-feed their cattle won't be able to sell them to the packing house.

Carcass information is available from several places. Many states have programs. Often called Ranch to Rail or Carcass Merit, the programs are usually coordinated by cattlemen's organizations or Extension staff. In addition, some packing companies will provide carcass data on request. Ask your packing representative about those programs.

Handling Bruising And Dark Cutters Refining your animal handling practices can go a long way toward minimizing the price tags on two huge meat quality problems - bruising and dark cutting beef.

Bruises cost the beef industry $4.03 for every steer and heifer slaughtered, the NCBA 1995 National Beef Quality Audit found. Fresh bruises are unsuitable for human consumption and must be cut out of the meat.

Dark cutters, on the other hand, cost the beef industry $1.7 billion annually.

Producers can prevent bruises three ways:

-- Handle with care. Keeping cattle quiet is most important for preventing bruises. Bruising can double when cattle get excited, says CSU's Temple Grandin. Move cattle at a walk, stop yelling and eliminate electric prod use if possible.

-- Dehorn early. Even if they don't fight, horned cattle will bruise other cattle. And the younger in life it's done, the less stress to the animal. Tipping horns, by the way, doesn't prevent bruising.

-- Have good handling facilities. Watch for things that could injure cattle, like gate latches or nails sticking out. "You want to make sure there are no sharp objects," Grandin says.

Preventing bruises, especially through quiet handling, will pay producers even without immediate economic incentives, Grandin adds. "Quiet handling costs nothing to do," she says. "They'll gain better. They'll have less sickness. You'll make more money if you handle cattle quietly."

The exact reason dark cutters occur isn't known, but researchers do know that stressful events in combination generally produce dark cutters. It appears proper handling can help prevent dark cutters.

Normal meat turns red after exposure to air. Dark cutters, however, retain a dark purple color and are heavily discounted.

For the cow/calf producer, Oklahoma State's Brad Morgan recommends getting rid of animals with poor dispositions. Stressful events combined with poor disposition is a likely recipe for a dark cutter. "If the cattle are pre-disposed to being loud and flighty, these cattle are good candidates for dark cutters," he says.

No Bull: Castration's The Best Bet Bull meat isn't always tougher than steer meat, says Texas A&M meat scientist Dan Hale. But, bull meat can be inconsistent, and that's a problem in today's beef industry. Minimizing undesirable eating experiences for consumers is the goal.

Although there is some controversy over whether bulls are more aggressive, many experts agree that castrating young bulls will make management easier. CSU's Field says, "Bulls, like teenage boys, raise a lot of commotion. When you mix bulls from various sources, they tend to exhibit a fair bit of aggressive behavior that can lead to weight loss and reduced feedlot performance." He adds that fighting bulls are more likely to damage equipment and fences.

Toughness and management aside, the bottom line is that restaurateurs and purveyors don't want bull meat, Hale says. Steers will generally go for a higher price.

Be sure to castrate early, Hale adds. Late castration makes meat tenderness more variable. Also, early castration reduces animal stress.

Avoiding Residues If your cattle have chemical residues at slaughter, you're in for a rough time of liability charges, fines and federal inspections of your operation.

Producers can avoid these problems through careful management practices to prevent residues, says University of Nebraska Extension veterinarian Dale Grotelueschen. He offers the following tips for avoiding residue concerns:

-- Follow label directions for administration of medications, vaccines and feed additives. Be especially careful to follow withdrawal times and inject only small volumes - 10 cc or less per site. Grotelueschen says there should be almost no residue risk if products are used properly.

-- Consult a veterinarian for extra-label drug use.

-- Store different chemicals separately, and label them clearly. This is especially important in large operations where several people may handle chemicals. "Major problems can occur if they're given to an animal by mistake," he says.

-- When using pesticides and herbicides on your own farm, strictly follow label directions for use.

-- If you buy your feed, keep a sample of each load in case a pesticide or herbicide residue problem occurs later. You will be able to trace the source of the residue back to the dealer if you have a sample. If contamination risk is high, test the feed before using it.

-- Dispose of chemicals, like pour-ons or insecticide eartags, properly. This includes chemical containers. Consult the label directions or your supplier for correct disposal method.

-- Design a residue screening program especially targeting non-performing cattle that may be slaughtered early. The LAST (Live Animal Swab Test) is available for this purpose.

Jerry Flanagan, cow/calf producer in eastern North Carolina, says he moved injections from the rump to the neck after reading about the practice in trade publications.

"Changing from giving the injection in the rump to giving the injection in the neck was easy enough to do," Flanagan says. "I don't see where it cost me any more."

He adds that injections in the neck don't take more time because his operation restrains each animal. "It was just a case of moving the table from the back of the chute to the front," he says.

Dan Currie, cow/calf producer and feedlot operator in Terry, MT, says keeping detailed records makes good business sense. He tracks the medications and vaccines he gives to his cattle, including brand and date.

"If something were to happen to me, there's a record of what's been done," Currie says.

He tells of two producers who both got a bad batch of vaccine that killed their cattle. One producer had a record of which brand he had used, and the pharmaceutical company reimbursed him for his lost cattle. The other producer, however, didn't have any proof that he had used the bad vaccine and wasn't able to get any compensation.

Currie says when he heard the story, he decided, "Never again. It's just as simple to write those (products) down when I get them in." He adds that recording vaccine brands also helps him track any unfavorable reactions to the vaccine, so he can switch products if necessary.

Jack Frantz, sale barn and auction yard owner in Winner, SD, says cattle buyers are interested in BQA, even though they don't offer premiums yet.

"The buyer does care," Frantz says. "There are buyers that will not bid on cattle that haven't gone through a pre-weaning program. A vaccination program really helps sell the cattle."

He also says many buyers ask for records of what producers have done to the calves. "We get a lot of requests," Frantz says.

Bill Epperson, Extension veterinarian at South Dakota State University, says the beef industry will soon require documentation of quality assurance efforts. He says the change will be easy for producers who are doing all they can now to produce quality beef.

"Whatever is going to be required in the future, I think it's going to be easier for them to provide that," Epperson says. "It's going to promote beef quality assurance and the people that are doing it."

He says producers who aren't as diligent at BQA - for example, who don't keep many records - should be able to stay competitive, provided they begin to practice BQA. "If you're not writing anything down at all, you're probably going to have to start doing that," he says. "But I don't see it as a hurdle that can't be jumped."

Fritz Nibbe, cow/calf producer in Lake City, MN, and Jim Anderson, a cattle feeder from Longmont, CO, say beef quality assurance should be a routine part of all operations.

"It's just like putting in a field of corn. You have to fertilize it and put on herbicides and pesticides. It's just something you have to do to stay in business," Nibbe says. Beef quality assurance is the same way, he adds. "If you don't do it, you're not going to be around anymore."

Anderson says his operation follows several beef quality assurance practices, including giving injections ahead of the shoulder and following drug labels. It's not hard to put BQA into practice, he says. "You attend a few meetings, it makes sense, you come home and do it," he says.

Anderson says quality assurance will improve beef. "We're going to ensure that the consumer will receive a better product," he says.

Tom Field, Colorado State University animal scientist, says beef quality won't fully improve until everyone in the industry has economic incentive to make it happen.

"There's money to be made, and we have to pass it back through the system," Field says.

He adds that there are some things producers do, like avoiding residues, to ensure beef safety and not because it pays well. "You do those things because they're right," he says.

But he adds that other beef quality components, like tenderness or yield grade, won't improve until all producers have a shared economic interest in the outcome of beef. He says alliances are a key part of that. "It's a whole lot easier to do this with partners than it is to do it alone," he says.

Field also says beef improvement is a continuous process. "We're not going to achieve this and move on to something else," he says. "Once we start down that road, it's not going to be easy."

Alabama William Powell, Ph.D. Alabama Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 2499 Montgomery, AL 36102-2499 334/265-1867

Robert E. "Butch" Blaylock Tennessee Valley Regional Ext. Ctr. PO Box 158 Auburn University Belle Mina, AL 35615 256/353-8702

Arizona Bas Aja Arizona Cattle Feeders Ass'n 1401 N. 24th Street, Suite #4 Phoenix, AZ 85008-4618 602/273-7414

Arkansas Jim Clower Arkansas Cattlemen's Ass'n 310 Executive Court Little Rock, AR 72205-4552 501/224-2114

Tom Troxel, Ph.D. Extension beef specialist PO Box 391 University of Arkansas Little Rock, AR 72203 501/671-2188

California Karissa Jacobs California Cattlemen's Ass'n 1221 H Street Sacramento, CA 95814-1910 916/444-0845

Jim Oltjen, Ph.D. Department of Animal Science University of California Davis, CA 95616 916/752-5650

Colorado (cow/calf, stocker) Kent Lebsack Colorado Cattlemen's Ass'n 8833 Ralston Road Arvada, CO 80002-2239 303/431-6422

(Fed Cattle) Trevor Tuell Colorado Livestock Ass'n 11990 Grant Street, Suite #402 Denver, CO 80233-1135 303/457-2232

Florida Jim Handley Florida Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 421929 Kissimmee, FL 34742-1929 407/846-6221

Ed Richey, DVM College of Veterinary Medicine P.O. Box 100136 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32610-0136 352/392-4700

Georgia Paul Wall Georgia Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 11307 Macon, GA 31212-1307 912/474-1815

James Strickland, DVM Extension veterinarian Landrum Box 8112, GSU University of Georgia Statesboro, GA 30460 912/681-5639

Idaho Sara Braasch Idaho Cattle Ass'n P.O. Box 15397 Bosie, ID 83715-5397 208/343-1615

Illinois Cimeron Frost Illinois Beef Ass'n 2060 W. Iles Ave., Suite B Springfield, IL 62704-4174 217/787-4280

Indiana Martha Parks Indiana Beef Cattle Ass'n 8770 Guion Road #A Indianapolis, IN 46268-3017 317/872-2333

Iowa Eldon Hans Iowa Cattlemen's Ass'n 2055 Ironwood Court Ames, IA 50014 515/296-2266

Kansas Brad Harrelson Kansas Livestock Ass'n 6031 SW 37th Street Topeka, KS 66614-5129 785/273-5115

Kentucky Michael Venable Kentucky Cattlemen's Ass'n 176 Pasadena Drive Lexington, KY 40503 606/278-0899

Louisiana Bob Felknor Louisiana Cattlemen's Ass'n 4921 I-10 Frontage Road Port Allen, LA 70767-5129 504/343-3491

Maryland Scott Barao, Ph.D. Maryland Cattlemen's Ass'n 1129 Animal Science Center University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742-0001 301/405-1394

Michigan Bridgett Voisinet Michigan Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 24041 Lansing, MI 48909-4041 517/336-6780

Harlan Ritchie, Ph.D. Department of Animal Science 113 Anthony Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 517/432-1390

Minnesota Ron Eustice Minnesota Beef Council 2850 Metro Drive, Suite #426 Minneapolis, MN 55425 612/854-6980

Mississippi Sammy Blossom Mississippi Cattlemen's Ass'n 680 Monroe Street, Suite A Jackson, MS 39202 601/354-8951

Missouri Janna Mahan Missouri Cattlemen's Ass'n 2306 Bluff Creek Drive Columbia, MO 65201 573/499-9162

Montana John Paterson, Ph.D. Department of Animal Science 217 Linfield Hall Montana State University Bozeman, MT 59717-0290 406/994-5562

Nebraska Chad Vorthmann Nebraska Cattlemen 1335 H Street Lincoln, NE 68508-2707 402/475-2333

Nevada Betsy Macfarlan Nevada Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 310 Elko, NV 89803-0310 775/738-9214

New Mexico Dina Reitzal New Mexico Beef Council 1209 Mountain Road Place NE, Suite C Albuquerque, NM 87110-7836

Ron Parker, Ph.D. Extension Animal Resources Box 30003 MSC New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003 505/646-1709

New York Carol Gillis New York Beef Industry Council P.O. Box 250 Westmoreland, NY 13490-0250 315/339-6922

North Carolina Bryan Blinson North Carolina Cattlemen's Ass'n 2228 N. Main Street Fuquay Varina, NC 27526-8572 919/552-9111

Roger McCraw, Ph.D. Animal Husbandry Extension P.O. Box 7621 North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 919/515-7621

North Dakota Lisa Lee 4023 N. State Street, Suite #30 North Dakota State University Bismarck, ND 58501-0620 701/328-5123

Greg Lardy, Ph.D. Department of Animal Science North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105 701/231-7660

Ohio Lisa McCutcheon Ohio Beef Council 10600 US, Rt. 42 Marysville, OH 43040 614/873-6736

Oklahoma Scott Dewald Oklahoma Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 82395 Oklahoma City, OK 73148-0395 405/235-4391

Jami Longacre Oklahoma Beef Industry Council 7510 N. Broadway, Suite 202 Oklahoma City, OK 73116 405/840-3777

Oregon Don Hansen, DVM 105 Magruder Hall Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-4802 541/737-6533

Pennsylvania Alexa Kroutch Pennsylvania Beef Council 1500 Fulling Mill Road Middletown, PA 17057 717/939-7000

Tammy Weaver Pennsylvania Beef Council 1500 Fulling Mill Road Middletown, PA 17057 717/939-7000

South Carolina Steve McGill South Carolina Cattlemen's Ass'n 401 Pruitt Road Iva, SC 29655-8896 864/348-3737

South Dakota Pat Adrian South Dakota Beef Industry Council P.O. Box 1037 Pierre, SD 57501-2018 605/224-4722

Lynn Iverson South Dakota BQA Program 330 N. Euclid Avenue Pierre, SD 57501 605/945-0948

Tennessee Bill Pendergrass Tennessee Cattlemen's Ass'n 610 W. College Street, Suite #204 Murfreesboro, TN 37130-3584 615/896-2333

Jim Neel Animal Science Extension Brehm Animal Science Bldg. Rm. 204 University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37901-1071 423/974-7294

Texas Scott McNeill Texas Beef Industry Council 8708 Ranch Road 620 North Austin, TX 78726-3503 512/335-2333

Ross Wilson Texas Cattle Feeders Ass'n 5501 W. Interstate 40 Amarillo, TX 79106-4617 806/358-3681

Utah Brent Tanner Utah Cattlemen's Ass'n 150 S. 600 E., Suite 10B Salt Lake City, UT 84102 801/355-5748

Dale ZoBell Ph.D. Department of ADVS Utah State University Logan, UT 84322-4815 435/797-2144

Virginia Jim Johnson Virginia Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 176 Daleville, VA 24083-0176 703/992-1009

Bill McKinnon, Ph.D. Department of Animal Science 368 Litton Reaves Hall Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061-0306 540/231-9160

Washington Wendy Peay Washington Cattle Feeders Ass'n P.O. Box 2382 Pasco, WA 99302-2382 509/547-5538

Karla Fullerton Washington Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 96 Ellensburg, WA 98926-0096 509/925-9871

Patti Brumbaugh Washington State Beef Council 14240 Inter Union Ave. South Suite #224 Seattle, WA 98168 206/444-2902

West Virginia Jim Bostic West Virginia Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 668 Buckhannon, WA 26201-0668 304/472-4020

Wisconsin John Freitag Wisconsin Cattlemen's Ass'n P.O. Box 955 New Glarus, WI 53574 608/572-5747

Wyoming Pat Swan Wyoming Beef Council PO Box 1243 Cheyenne, WY 82003 307/777-7396

NCBA Staff: Gary L. Cowman, Ph.D. Business: 303/694-0305 Fax: 303/770-7109

Michael T. Smith, M.S. Business: 303/694-0305 Fax: 303/770-7109

"Building a Partnership for Better Beef" is a 5-minute video about injection methods. It's available free from Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health and National Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA). Call 800/821-7467.

"Dollars and Sense: The Value of Beef Quality and Consistency" is a handbook that provides an overview of what BQA is and how producers can improve beef. Published by Texas A&M University, Texas Beef Council and NCBA, the handbook is free to out-of-state residents. Call Texas Beef Council at 512/335-2333.

To order other BQA manuals, videos and posters covering a variety of beef quality topics, contact Gary Cowman or Mike Smith at NCBA at 303/694-0305 or visit the NCBA Web site at